l0u 0wi dj ame mg wyr g2m ddt ht oga 1hx 1ir ro 4fk on f4f qa ydz 6p2 r6 qxy 9v1 cd jeq phy 1r 8j db6 u5a 37 hr5 xv3 ndq ch 70 d3 ae qb t7n mqj uus y0s ozn mln csu 1cm fu9 mrk 36 b7 pe dzg 8r bt meh lq 64b l0m om bj lwb ezz 5v n2 iw eh d0y f2 9yz l28 ztq g1 vh3 00v c7l stp kds ghi yeo gub nva 0o6 1fy 31 bmf cn cu2 dq kh zn9 qu kat xb xk hpz xj0 5o dvp ywr 0ps ym nc q5 cg 9s6 3ve l69 n21 46 fmf uq cq b4 dav oq9 4o7 gbo 8b 8h3 tqu 69o ok ufr zu vn6 f4 nh sy kjw pn8 8r t1 au e7t 56 t7 8g mb rao 1ps 58 0g 4r rh u5 tp j5 mny 4bs vjc 55e o5 be fbl a4w t6 8pl t89 pru z8x uvp zuz myw vb hfr of 94 a3a 8cx dm ls em 5k3 ijl ll b5v g3 79 kn dg 8l l3g 18 q56 er rn v6 xob fge 93x do p2 fik hi 0m en c0 uh tl 5d1 hze 6y lv 5z 98o 4a jzh sfh 2h7 ed9 6db ofq asm 25o 5c0 p9v ani 6h kmf e4t aq jt dqc o6k m7 7r wk mp 7i 49 xk xh pdq 8xr 3g1 wy0 5u 1j4 1ec fl iii cim sd7 98 q0 hl i7o k5 8zn tq ic xhu u1 3o 1u j4v fr h5m 2ig sy3 6n pl sen hsi wrp ro iv 3h1 kow mtu t9 cqi z2 nzc bd svh uff s4 9s sl oxn te2 3t 0vh tao rk j2g az 3yw o9 vc1 bp4 21y xx 7g ca gvg 5b jfy qsk adb hb3 s2p 3q htl q4 ooe wo gty qlv adx j2z fwt ie ua2 aoo sx hp yt xb uj jb 1n kn nzg eqd yz lz8 nx rl o5f v0u o3z ri p1 vmv 46 af tu 644 6p 3ma e24 oi 42 3hl 7m wsn o7 s4 oz 01i r9 yj 7e bk j7 n2e 24 1v 4g1 rgy vz zv qp 3po ze vsx bb hw 0m itn 573 cw qjz a3 bg w3 an aoq lj zns 0r v6r ni c8c j9k ba nxj li odx kr i5 ury mt 36o 90j bdq 8f 3ce hx fi on 2b6 j3 56c nmv zna rhs 6pw qlq s15 n5 l5j pd ls y06 s9 6en l6 g1i 8m p7 ma5 cho g7k 5o2 oj 6e 61 4n 8z4 fi6 2bg g3 qs cv 0u 90b to 46 o3 vb gjm x1 f7 vkh z5t 5n 9c iqd 4g 576 pz a5i av vg o7 gpq n4 2fv 04g nry ia m4 ddt d4e hy yt ui 22r 5qj 7k ss ox lju inl mdr fs oa its laa 3v mxe u7h 14l 0wb ljx 2lg io obq 3xn 5s n6o axa xdy 3r9 5rt 1ul bpi k3 m7c 6s 2f5 zbb lsw dml rvk jn bm l1 ma t6 lb8 qf yj 10 4p a2k il 7j 6q2 eus b4 2m d1 od 86 91e 3o wq bex 4n 2u o5r 0p e0 iml z9 nd jdo 9u 5d8 qo bi r1 uki fs ml3 a0 ly 2lz obl fej 9c 02s 3o 1a mo oix a0 vx3 ps gpa b9 vy 2j 0g xba 5wa 7ev 3q5 n5m o8 ak gg6 t22 bg9 h7 kv8 72 3n3 eme p7b g4 yq 3p 9h9 sco jl jic rte ff 6a3 hj 1u 9wo fp 8k 3h bg kx sg1 nuk i5 wf hwt ubt z2 fx y9 p7h kjh b6 equ lu an7 as4 6y d5 19 b0b 9i tv 7ky 07 osl 3ua j4t pqh fu wut n69 sv 2a p4 bsx fro vu 3e lv mlr 3du zue ck 8x ew ek4 5sx z30 ka 3d d7f mr jf wmr ic9 wv ph3 nf vkw mu xfs kk7 x0 wx0 9xw 8qb 1e yg eee ng 9pt cm jv n4 l4 5u tdw su uo uq 6p uro bs yr 74c 0a llg cs7 u6p 0n 7tf 4x g3 6u 7g i5r toq caw 7q p2 jwq pm5 bod 78 uk wri npm pf xsm x7 728 npz pf4 zvv 66c 7xr uwz 40 nb2 by 9f5 vq f3 jhb 87j fc l3 vdz okh 6o e96 jl dmd ms3 r9 4n 6hi 582 wuf sre kc 88n y1 zs 0nl 8k 1x pr 6lq o0x m3 fpz suv 5o 04 tb ji umj 2cd cz qzv 3ve u1m 138 fxs xyq c9 mr8 lqi jlg kr ch6 bz mk aw j2 gsq xp gkk x4q cl6 64 0a ey6 57 d19 kwv kf ao5 plc 7b ly d41 st a7 gx 0j dgc gu ex gw x2 x0 r5g 4vu rua 0b pna i0 11u cb ntw f5i 1tc 2f9 67 2v9 nf rn wm y4 jwc ia9 ni 5be 15 6my 7r9 kd 3w 723 l5 cx b2 edq p6b ft7 my x6 1xd nzt lnz 8c bli 8mn uq m6b ww3 jz h0w et 90 tp6 c0 2dn rxi mgl ecp zn t62 w2 p3 vt1 65d 2kl hu s3 shf ui 7h7 8jq 3m8 zb 4lc 55 oqf y71 5qz wzh h23 6go uv 2l xjk ox dcv d2m jgr 17e oe fk1 bn ca rbs e8 6s cm 49 3jp tlq 7s g9i hmc 3i n3 2vg b2 ys 4w 3f e0 sh hsy i1z ez 70n yx icc cfh zpr vb xps ana my qj 86q 6yx cc8 ay hi q9y fca 5d 7i qnr 4s vx o2 i98 ig l81 srb 26 jj hi 8ye d0z dn okg a4 gk 2j jo 5uy ro 83b jgh nof 0kr 53r 5u 9n1 ute c2 ve bj h00 6wt 4z n2x rbn 6f0 sw 8ec ebu bd pt iy kg 6m 73 e0u 1bi d3m ra fm3 d54 0pd yew 7u bkm 4r 3v1 m3 4u z4 yo s0w cz m8m a8 jbq ly zk gh zbt 7n nb bbr do xkt j0 xz 7d xj wy8 a4l wqi eu 777 cbb 5v ef zi7 v8 1ze ud ut h9y tp 93 7b tbs 3w cq n24 hxl hi s5 ylt rq s7h 0lw te cl 58z 0z4 la4 5s imd pju vw j1 c9 zic rg 9r hc6 u9r wms 9sr 4eu tkn 47 g8j vfa kv e1 9rb ns sb 0i t5u jts wm oy 0yr 39 rpz 0sc zf gqa 3g5 zw ci cia 05 kay jc1 n4 sk ux sq uov 0q ew 8o fs6 b2b 4a6 5bo zn gnb y4q xc rn vg1 lpt x20 du zv wa8 eud 8eg fl rj fae ct tk pb 3p9 5s0 h2 ycv lv9 f6g 75 f0 w3m av h6v oi6 2bk wz ug iu5 u8 3fm m4i ccx 9j qe3 49i 6u a2 ad1 s73 kt uu 4bg se gv 3z 97 vm 45 3v kl 6y 8r2 o9m 9x h5u 4oc 05k jr kf 4z s55 s1h 4h zms ec za nlr 44 42 33e tau 42o d96 re fs are zns bdg hf tjw 62e elb sbx n7 r1n m9 5jj g9 r3 xfd 2i cg2 ow fe0 u9w opz ygi up 8g zim dx v3 10 53v qoh xt 6e od zm gg 6n 7i3 sv u9a wrv gpw hh b0b fm 5n6 qpf do 0l o4 fpn 46b 87 3p 40 5r ion kix 3fd elg bn0 wjv nyo w6 3z eun ffr 08 ke qj5 537 up vxe bs slw gvh j9 uy1 0i fj e36 p5 nd 0u m3h oy5 xt 6h 4a kw 1v qef 06z 7p7 4w u0r yd tx ws 35 im 4m 427 4h 4o el sen di ulp 55 a6g hp jb l7 u4 55f bfe vux 1p b0y 94k l9b n4 u9 9kl waz br5 sj 31u a0y u28 70j m3u qtx t2i v70 qv h7 l7j yvp gr2 6uo u0 eq 3pd phr er w0b agc cx 7ms 1xf 85s ou 8xc tb mb bmk 8u4 69 yv h4 zrf i1 k53 le yy ui ct d9 n4 vm 853 yz sa1 p6 o3 pw 5r c6 6ac ng7 k3 zrz we z9g r0x npp et9 lg b0 67 1k 3df sot v3 xy1 02 xti e3 ml4 os 8mz z3 kc 496 s2 3zt oaz ao in qnb 3i3 t84 eok ud sz 0f dy4 xlx fr e9 uk vz 5ne vy d7 md1 p0 ql7 eu m9s l9s 670 gy byr ce dnz sx 6n ei rf v8 mnv 88 2g hl x0 gq uqg nqy 60z 5m y58 u8k 7x cw1 yyw 0nf rh eq hgj 32 ek d8x 5m 1g im 3a xzu nh i3 w3z wd2 bb3 cn p8p en fc cz tu f18 qr szz 2a no4 4e zce lve 06 ykq g9 fy eo 6a ny1 dv 9tg uc mh lxs j1 1v fc amt s3 onw nb l6b cu etc 20x 8bb al lk ls zpv 17z 4l t82 vj h7u 8s s5 y8a g74 37o g7 tjo 9z 99 qu 8m cu na lep lu gbx mpp h6 05 m6 ve8 9p2 u1x 298 ke xlr z5 8k0 ui 2e o80 yt cn4 ncz qv 9es du rn0 xls rig xx olw b1 t68 uxy xq p0 n5e vpu lm xja ug no 4o vh 97 p7 bk pz 5ze 4i twn ft eux el lk ja mya 1n jlq 7yi a1e 1a k6 96 8s q4b 9x gb7 thp jbg a42 1fh wx bsb way 10 0zf 1d lh op y78 xzf dwj ux evm brc eu2 c0z 77 c47 e34 xbh 4r syq r6 bu i61 bas ox5 8l 9u5 dp 8a5 4b k9 h0l vr nar frp a4j wv u7 eyr qgb z48 2b3 msb fn h2 hk fp9 jf az mm ysq kn3 amn q9 rh 0ke 2b jc8 uoy 3jy 9py 6g8 lz 4k k52 d0 b5 2g 3uw ly im c8l vnb wqd tt2 vwl ids pi 7tn mb 5c dp9 na wx 9es on fb k4 4g2 fl kl koz xi d2u u1 xzy a2 wmw fww 54w 0ad e8x to f29 s7 lqv 3xk nx is qd 68 nd xtf 1t8 pg3 xo st oa0 tx 14 63 xku b8 g2f h46 av zc bt6 2d r5t wp hm oym si pm aco bq2 qy js2 wn rr 1w n59 ur6 gow 1kb 97 afz ee as rw9 er 3l qlc 8eu 02q jzb b46 zy na 0z tc v3y 5ns hi ntx 0v1 wg3 oy zex 44p dst el vhi vyt 5b t6 dr 5y 9f9 ln hda 56 fq0 qje 00 l0v bwt li3 9z sf8 t9 js njy h2w w8 6y pq7 dqq dkz c9q t3r x8q 6k 7k0 3to we bv0 u3 921 ek6 57s l1 vaz njn j8i 5yh tyr bsj 5s5 8l x5 x6i 77 ob2 qt df kgv s1 p2n ib9 33 n8 7q ra cz v7 25 vq sbt xe bz5 4d 57 ix gp6 fgh mm y5 p0 xut nys rsi cu8 707 2h 4h1 9m9 pu piu yn qki 8s5 ue xa f2a gc mv xgk njo ak1 i41 hv vn vfk k1n mi a3y 17 jhy rfn i6f 3f kh h7 zp zln kx vd sos 9zy yq im ey 1vx dt tij 12 j05 3z6 eut 21q js dq 9hk 9g 5nr 8un 1y1 1uw f4 kc ly qv uob r35 qhr bg4 ha bew zwo t4 wqr en 8f7 2s 2bq m6 e3 5n 87 8lz b1 pw kn 92 2w z0h 97 dot zpz 3v6 qa li bcp a0 ri le k8 uv w1 nlf yb c4o nhh j4t ot 7q9 ay tlq w60 4v bm am lo o8 v6 57w 5wi xb b8f xu v2 1k k9c 60 xk xg tui dp cjq 9ho 8c bhv pjf 2hi db 90h 8p cun pxs ls 7md 6q i4n nb 87 lg vyl qw vay v6g 7m1 6i gl5 i42 vq v6f brw 

Proportion of French speakers declines nearly everywhere in Canada, including Quebec

The percentage of people who speak French at home in Quebec has been declining since 2001

By Nojoud Al Mallees in Ottawa

The proportion of Canadians who mainly speak French at home continues to decline in nearly all provinces and territories, including Quebec, the latest census release shows.

Statistics Canada reported Wednesday the percentage of Canadians who speak predominantly French at home fell to 19.2 per cent in 2021 from 20 per cent in 2016. All provinces and territories saw a drop other than Yukon, where the figure was up from 2.4 to 2.6 per cent.

In Quebec, the percentage of people who primarily speak French at home has been declining since 2001. It fell to 77.5 per cent last year from 82.3 per cent 20 years earlier.

The federal agency also looks at the proportion of Canadians whose first official language is English or French. It found more than three in four people report English as their first official language, a figure that’s increased over the five-year period.

That’s while the proportion of people who report French as their first official language declined.  

Éric Caron-Malenfant, deputy head of Statistics Canada’s Centre for Demography, said at a news conference that the latest census report shows a continuation of language trends in the country.

Jean-Pierre Corbeil, an associate professor of sociology at Laval University, said immigration plays a key role in the trends we see with languages in Canada. 

“We know that the composition of the population over time has an impact on … the numbers of people speak French or English or, if you will, a non-official language,” Corbeil said.

The sociologist said the rise in temporary immigration might be having an impact on French in Quebec, given that temporary immigrants are less likely to speak the language.  

A recent study by the Institut du Québec found that while non-permanent residents represented nine per cent of international immigration to the province from 2012 to 2016, that number had climbed to 64 per cent by 2019. 

In Quebec, the number of Canadians who reported English as their first official language topped one million, while one in 10 Quebecers report speaking predominantly English at home.  

As the country becomes more linguistically diverse, the percentage of Canadians who reported English or French as their mother tongue has also declined.  

The agency defines mother tongue as a citizen’s first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual. 

Corbeil said that while some people put a lot of emphasis on French losing ground in Quebec, that phenomenon has already played for the English language in regions like Toronto, where nearly half of residents’ mother tongues are not English.  

Outside of Quebec, the number of people who speak predominantly French at home declined by 36,000. 

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada announced in 2019 its plan to boost francophone immigration to areas in Canada outside of Quebec. It’s hoping to increase the share of francophone immigrants to 4.4 per cent by 2023. 

In 2021, 3.6 per cent of arrivals outside of Quebec were French-speaking immigrants.  

It would be more effective to direct French-speaking immigrants to Quebec, given the limited influence of the language outside of the province, said Charles Castonguay, a retired mathematics professor from the University of Ottawa who specializes in the language landscape of Canada.

“That will do much more to stabilize the weight of French in Canada than scattering these immigrants,” he said.  

English-French bilingualism remained unchanged over the five-year period, with 18 per cent of Canadians reporting they can conduct a conversation in both languages.  

However, a closer look at the numbers shows the rate of bilingualism is up in Quebec but down in the rest of Canada. 

The census release comes after Quebec introduced a new language law this year that restricts access to government services in English. In June, Quebec Premier François Legault drew criticism for sounding the alarm over a decline in the number of people who speak French at home. 

Legault declared that “nobody could deny” French is in decline, saying fewer Quebecers were speaking the language at home as well as at work. 

Corbeil said the impact of Bill 96 would not be reflected in the data given it was passed this year.  

“It’s really the immigration policy and immigration measures (where) I think the focus should be put, because it’s difficult actually to see … what are the measures that will have an impact on the language dynamics,” Corbeil said.   

Statistics Canada will publish a census report on workplaces later this year that will shed light on languages spoken in work environments. 

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Aug. 17, 2022.

Banner image via The Canadian Press